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Maslow vs herzberg essay. Bismarck and the unification of the german states essay. Free essays on angels in america. Free essays student life. Chrysanthemums free essay. Writing a cover letter for an essay submission. In the United States, women were treated as second-class citizens and not given the right to vote until , when the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.
Although women have made great strides in gaining access to education and employment, to this day they continue to face significant hurdles that men generally do not confront. The existence of a glass ceiling indicates that women, even today, do not enjoy the same opportunities as men. In some places, these rights are institutionalized or supported by law, local custom, and behavior, whereas in others, they may be ignored or suppressed. They differ from broader notions of human rights through claims of an inherent historical and traditional bias against the exercise of rights by women and girls in favor of men and boys.
Described as an international bill of rights for women, it went into effect on September 3, Niue and the Vatican City, which are non-member states, also have not ratified it. Patriarchy is a social structure in which men are considered to have a monopoly on power and women are expected to submit.
The origins of patriarchy are closely related to the concept of gender roles, or the set of social and behavioral norms that are considered to be socially appropriate for individuals of a specific sex. Much work has been devoted to understanding why women are typically thought to inhabit a domestic role while men are expected to seek professional satisfaction outside of the home.
As such, rather than working to destablize the historical notion of patriarchy, much literature assess the origins of patriarchy, or a social system in which the male gender role acts as the primary authority figure central to social organization, and where fathers hold authority over women, children, and property.
It implies the institutions of male rule and privilege and entails female subordination. Though less popular in modern academic circles, there has been a traditional search for biological explanations of gender roles. In this work, Darwin explained evolution from the biological understanding that is now the accepted scientific theory. Biologists such as Alfred Russel Wallace quickly applied his theory to mankind.
To be clear, though, the line of thought called Social Darwinism, or the application of evolutionary principles to the development of human beings and our social practices, was never promoted by Darwin himself. The modern term for using biological explanations to explain social phenomena is sociobiology.
Sociobiologists use genetics to explain social life, including gender roles. According to the sociobiologists, patriarchy arises more as a result of inherent biology than social conditioning. Americans have managed to elect a black president and, decades ago, a Catholic one. But a woman president is another matter.
The Confidence Gap - The Atlantic
The prejudices around women run surprisingly deep and are hard to budge. These are more arbitrary—and more changeable. Across the planet, however, we have found universal gender prejudices. Gender prejudices are shaped by family dynamics, and that makes them harder to unseat.
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People usually have women in their families, and while men and women are marvelously interdependent, men almost universally have higher status. As more women excel in college and careers, sexist people will encounter them at home and at work, destabilizing the protection racket. And will that ever change? In my research, I have found that women, compared with their male counterparts, more often gain offices through appointment as opposed to popular election. Few women secure presidencies where they do not share power with a prime minister, and women leaders in dual systems often occupy the weaker role.
Given that system, the best route for women is to work to change the stereotypes surrounding the presidency and improve the pipeline of women in politics.
And there is still a short supply of women in office as legislators, governors and candidates. Until those issues are addressed, the United States will likely struggle to join the company of the dozens of countries that have found a place for at least one woman at the executive desk. Eight years later, Clinton more fully embraced her gender as an electoral asset. Of course, also revealed backlash to this progress: Donald Trump bolstered the idea of presidential masculinity in his rhetoric, behavior and even body language, and it resonated with many of his voters.
Over the arc of history, however, we have witnessed greater public acceptance of gender disruption in the presidency. In , Senator Margaret Chase Smith of Maine won just , votes in her bid for the Republican nomination, while Clinton won nearly 66 million votes in the general election—a majority.
And presidential candidates, including men, must avoid running on stereotypically masculine terms. Joan C. Sexism played a role in the election—no doubt about that.
Women and Leadership
Not exactly the qualities we prioritize in a commander-in-chief. If progressives stop to listen, they will hear that many Trump voters share their outrage about growing income inequality. For them, the change promised by a woman president came across as a threat. One reason was her focus on the glass ceiling, a metaphor that typically demands access for elite women to jobs dominated by elite men. Why should working-class women care who gets elite jobs they are not qualified for? Trump greets the audience during a rally Timothy A.
And if progressives stop to listen, they will hear that many Trump voters share their outrage about growing income inequality. Not just working-class whites, but non-elites of all races care deeply about the decline of the American dream. Will it be a woman president who accomplishes this? All I can say is I hope so. The question is when the right candidate will speak to the needs of the fast-growing parts of the electorate. This is not to say that these Americans vote based on gender. They make up a significant portion of the white working class, and a higher percentage of them voted for Barack Obama in than for Clinton in These voters will only play a bigger role in deciding national elections as their numbers grow, so candidates have no choice but to appeal to them.
Its share of the voting-eligible population is estimated to increase by 2 percent in , and to grow every subsequent year. Crucially, RAE voters need to register and turn out if they are going to exert their full influence. In the election, however, they made up just 53 percent of actual voters. This will put pressure on Democrats to nominate a woman.
And if Trump becomes ineligible to run, who knows? A rising GOP star, like the U. We had already elected the first black president, and, from my perspective as a white woman, electing a woman seemed easy in comparison. I was wrong. All of our models for a person in power, and certainly for the American president, are based on men. That reality gave our campaign an awkward charge: We had to prove that Clinton could do the job of president, as it had always been done by men. For better or worse, we proved just that. But forcing her into the ill-fitting model of a male leader robbed her of some of her humanity and robbed all of us of a more fully realized sense of leadership—one that combines the best qualities of men and women leaders.
As disappointing as the election was for many, I think a lot of women feel empowered in the aftermath.