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This study investigates Yemeni EFL students' perceptions, attitudes and challenges on integrating Facebook Interaction (FBI) to improve their essay writing. The. Technology & Resources in Education eJournal. Subscribe to.

This type of technology uses the Internet, which was also destroyed for personal safety. Now the people live in a society where libraries and books serve as forms of information. Due to the fact that the people did not have access to the Internet, they actually became more productive by inventing new things and using their minds.

Without the Internet and advanced technology, people are able to be more efficient and independent. People should. Once we could write properly, now we only text. Google has made us lazy in terms of how we research and access data.


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However, is this true? In three major news publications, three major essayists have grappled with this question and come to completely different conclusions.

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Although the neurological evidence in support of the 'Internet is stealing our brains' thesis is. What happened at the University of Virginia is only one of many cases of plagiarism faced everyday all over the world. Plagiarism itself is not a new problem, but the Internet has made a difficult situation even more complex. According to Ryan: Plagiarized work used to be generated through frat house recycling efforts, purchased. Before becoming a force in the movie streaming and internet TV industry, Netflix was originally in the movie rental industry. With competitors such as Blockbuster, Hollywood Entertainment and Redbox, Netflix rose to be the leading Internet provider for Internet television and streaming thus forcing Blockbuster and Hollywood Entertainment out of business.

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With the transformation of consumer viewing in the American television industry, Netflix has over 75 million members who stream more than Just how destructive is the internet to education? According to author and journalist Judith Levine, the internet is far from empowering 1. Vannevar Bush and J. Licklider are two contributors that advanced this idea into then current technology. Bush had supported research that led to the bomb that was dropped on Hiroshima.

After seeing the disaster, he wanted to create a machine that would show how technology can lead to understanding instead of destruction. This machine would include a desk with two screens, switches and buttons, and a keyboard. In , Ford Foundation funded Licklider to analyze how libraries could be improved with technology. Almost a decade later, his book entitled " Libraries of the Future " included his vision. He wanted to create a system that would use computers and networks so human knowledge would be accessible for human needs and feedback would be automatic for machine purposes.

This system contained three components, the corpus of knowledge, the question, and the answer.

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Licklider called it a procognitive system. By the s, the success of these endeavors resulted in OPAC replacing the traditional card catalog in many academic, public and special libraries. This permitted libraries to undertake additional rewarding co-operative efforts to support resource sharing and expand access to library materials beyond an individual library. Successful research proposals came from six U. The term virtual library was initially used interchangeably with digital library, but is now primarily used for libraries that are virtual in other senses such as libraries which aggregate distributed content.


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In the early days of digital libraries, there was discussion of the similarities and differences among the terms digital , virtual , and electronic. A distinction is often made between content that was created in a digital format, known as born-digital , and information that has been converted from a physical medium, e. Not all electronic content is in digital data format. The term hybrid library is sometimes used for libraries that have both physical collections and electronic collections. For example, American Memory is a digital library within the Library of Congress.

Some important digital libraries also serve as long term archives, such as arXiv and the Internet Archive. Others, such as the Digital Public Library of America , seek to make digital information from various institutions widely accessible online. Many academic libraries are actively involved in building institutional repositories of the institution's books, papers, theses, and other works which can be digitized or were 'born digital'.

Many of these repositories are made available to the general public with few restrictions, in accordance with the goals of open access , in contrast to the publication of research in commercial journals, where the publishers often limit access rights. Institutional, truly free, and corporate repositories are sometimes referred to as digital libraries. Institutional repository software is designed for archiving, organizing, and searching a library's content. Physical archives differ from physical libraries in several ways. Traditionally, archives are defined as:.

The technology used to create digital libraries is even more revolutionary for archives since it breaks down the second and third of these general rules. In other words, "digital archives" or "online archives" will still generally contain primary sources, but they are likely to be described individually rather than or in addition to in groups or collections. Further, because they are digital, their contents are easily reproducible and may indeed have been reproduced from elsewhere.

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The Oxford Text Archive is generally considered to be the oldest digital archive of academic physical primary source materials. Archives differ from libraries in the nature of the materials held. Libraries collect individual published books and serials, or bounded sets of individual items. The books and journals held by libraries are not unique, since multiple copies exist and any given copy will generally prove as satisfactory as any other copy. The material in archives and manuscript libraries are "the unique records of corporate bodies and the papers of individuals and families".

A fundamental characteristic of archives is that they have to keep the context in which their records have been created and the network of relationships between them in order to preserve their informative content and provide understandable and useful information over time.

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The fundamental characteristic of archives resides in their hierarchical organization expressing the context by means of the archival bond. Archival descriptions are the fundamental means to describe, understand, retrieve and access archival material. At the digital level, archival descriptions are usually encoded by means of the Encoded Archival Description XML format. The EAD is a standardized electronic representation of archival description which makes it possible to provide union access to detailed archival descriptions and resources in repositories distributed throughout the world.

NESTOR is based on the idea of expressing the hierarchical relationships between objects through the inclusion property between sets, in contrast to the binary relation between nodes exploited by the tree. NESTOR has been used to formally extend the 5S model to define a digital archive as a specific case of digital library able to take into consideration the peculiar features of archives. The advantages of digital libraries as a means of easily and rapidly accessing books, archives and images of various types are now widely recognized by commercial interests and public bodies alike.

Traditional libraries are limited by storage space; digital libraries have the potential to store much more information, simply because digital information requires very little physical space to contain it. A physical library must spend large sums of money paying for staff, book maintenance, rent, and additional books.

Digital libraries may reduce or, in some instances, do away with these fees. Both types of library require cataloging input to allow users to locate and retrieve material. Digital libraries may be more willing to adopt innovations in technology providing users with improvements in electronic and audio book technology as well as presenting new forms of communication such as wikis and blogs; conventional libraries may consider that providing online access to their OP AC catalog is sufficient.

An important advantage to digital conversion is increased accessibility to users.

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They also increase availability to individuals who may not be traditional patrons of a library, due to geographic location or organizational affiliation. There are a number of software packages for use in general digital libraries, for notable ones see Digital library software.

Institutional repository software, which focuses primarily on ingest, preservation and access of locally produced documents, particularly locally produced academic outputs, can be found in Institutional repository software.

This software may be proprietary, as is the case with the Library of Congress which uses Digiboard and CTS to manage digital content. The design and implementation in digital libraries are constructed so computer systems and software can make use of the information when it is exchanged. These are referred to as semantic digital libraries. Semantic libraries are also used to socialize with different communities from a mass of social networks. Keywords-based and semantic search are the two main types of searches. A tool is provided in the semantic search that create a group for augmentation and refinement for keywords-based search.

Conceptual knowledge used in DjDL is centered around two forms; the subject ontology and the set of concept search patterns based on the ontology. The three type of ontologies that are associated to this search are bibliographic ontologies , community-aware ontologies, and subject ontologies. In traditional libraries, the ability to find works of interest is directly related to how well they were cataloged. While cataloging electronic works digitized from a library's existing holding may be as simple as copying or moving a record from the print to the electronic form, complex and born-digital works require substantially more effort.

To handle the growing volume of electronic publications, new tools and technologies have to be designed to allow effective automated semantic classification and searching. While full-text search can be used for some items, there are many common catalog searches which cannot be performed using full text, including:.

Most digital libraries provide a search interface which allows resources to be found. These resources are typically deep web or invisible web resources since they frequently cannot be located by search engine crawlers.